UBC configuration examples
Table UBC configuration examples table contains example settings of the system resources parameters. There are 4 example configurations — A, B, C and D, in the order of increasing container power.
“Power” represents the power of the container. It is shown as the RAM size of the computer slash number of containers of this type that can be run on such a computer.
In all examples it's assumed, that the system has swap space twice bigger than the RAM, so total virtual memory size is 3*(RAM size). But it's not OpenVZ specific requirement to have so much swap space - you can configure your swap as you usually do in linux and even don't have it at all.
“Helper values” are intermediate values, produced during computation
of the resource control parameter limits. These values help to understand
the process of computing the limits and verify the result. “Total mem”
represents the total amount of RAM allowed to be used to each Virtual
Environment, “kernel mem” is its kernel fraction (consisting of
and all socket buffers) and “user mem” is the memory allowed to be allocated
Avnumproc is the expected avarage number of processes, as used
in recommendations in UBC consistency check.
For parameters having distinctive
limit the values of the
barrier and the limit are shown separated by “/” sign.
All values are given in their “natural units of measurement” (except were the units are explicitly specified). The natural units of measurement are the units in which the values are accepted by vzctl command and stored in container configuration file.
For parameters with names ending in “pages” the natural units of measurement are pages.
For other memory parameters (
and all socket buffers) the units are bytes. For the remaining parameters
numproc) the units are items.
Explanation of the examples
This is a configuration of a most “light” container. It has 15 processes on average and can have up to 40 network connections. This configuration allows to run a simple Web server, handling static and dynamic pages produced by simple scripts and accessible over ssh and ftp. Configurations of apache and FTP servers must be adjusted to reduce the number of spawned processes and memory consumption.
A computer with 2GB of RAM (+ 4GB swap) can run up to 400 of such containers.
Here is an example
pstree(1) output inside such a container:
[root@test /root]# pstree init-+-crond |-httpd---20*[httpd] |-sendmail |-sshd |-syslogd `-xinetd
Example B is a configuration for a not “heavy” and not very loaded server. It can be a dynamic Web server, mail, FTP or DNS server (but not a combination of them). The configuration assumes 40 processes on average and up to 80 network connections.
A computer with 2GB of RAM (+ 4GB swap) can run up to 120 of such containerrs.
A configuration for a “heavy” server: Web application server with a database backend or any other server consuming a considerable amount of memory and other resources. Mail and FTP servers having up to 200 simultaneous clients can also work with this configuration. The configuration is designed for 200 processes on average, up to 500 network connections and about 250MB of RAM for each container.
Example D is a configuration for 1 container on a computer and emulates a stand-alone server. It roughly corresponds to the default configuration of a stand-alone Linux system.
Caution: it is not a safe configuration. Like a stand-alone Linux system,
it can hang if too much memory is consumed. It isn't a security problem,
because it is a configuration for only 1 container on a computer.
However, to make the configuration more robust and protect the system from
other parameters should be limited to lower values. For example, a
configuration produced by multiplying the limits
from Example C by 4 is a safe configuration.